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Physical framework


Specific Objectives and Competences

  • To provide information about the European landscape.


  • Europe only occupies 6.2% of the surface of our planet.
  • Without any clear limits towards the East, the separation between the European and Asian continents have been established as the Ural Mountains, the River Ural, the Caucasus and the Bosphorus Straits. The Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean respectively determine its southern and western limits. These limits condition the scope of the European project.
  • Due to its geological history, the relief of the EU territory is quite well differentiated.
    • Rocky platforms, ancient massifs and inland sedimentary basins.
    • Great Plains.
    • Alpine Cordilleras.
    • The Baltic Shield.
    • Volcanic Islands.
  • Europa is a continent with very good access to the sea, which has helped the development of trade, large-scale fishing and commercial activity. Europe’s most important exterior seas are: the Mediterranean Sea, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the Black Sea.


The case of Turkey: Issues in the Establishment of Geographic, Cultural and Political Boundaries (en, fr, de)

Should the geographical limits of Europe determine the scope of the project for European Integration?

Is Turkey a European state?: The geographical criteria (es)



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